A Theory In The Symbolic Unconscious

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In my attempt to unravel the mysteries that surround my existence and presence here in this reality we call planet Earth, I decided to post an interrogatory to my readers, “Have you ever dreamed of a person you were attracted to, but never met them during your waking life, or you were unaware as to their identity and unable to distinguish them with any particular certainty as to who their character was?” Dream analysis suggests these individuals represented in dreams are your symbolic “soul mates” or “gender opposites.” The two theories which discuss the idea of a “soul mate,” which is, of course, a person with whom one shares a deep empathy in terms of disposition point-of-view, or sensitivity; are Twinship and Anima. Although the encounter with this symbolic image in dreams is more of a representation of “successful apprenticeship” in an individual’s personal development and creative successes than of an actual meeting of a “soul mate” in and of itself, the concept is rather interesting to entertain since Lucy Holmes put forth that in all the patients she worked with, all possessed an internalized triangulation of “mother”, “father”, and “self” within her patients’ psyches. Both theories share a common root though, the turn to our creative ego function, specifically the gender opposite, to secure a sense of self-cohesion when confidence needs bolstering. It is a completely normal experience and one that drives the preservation of self identity. I had one of these dreams during my college years. Here are the philosophical differences.

Twinship (Freudian)

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Twinship or alter ego transference occurring in waking life. Kohut (1971) originally identified this self object function as a manifestation of mirroring. Twinship represents normal developmental striving. Kohut (1984) characterized it as a longing for an intimate experience in which a self object is perceived as a faithful replica of oneself, capable of matching one’s psychological states as if self and self object were one and the same. It is not a merger, in which the sense of an autonomous self is submerged, although in archaic forms it may manifest in this way. More typically, twinship self object needs spur people to turn to their self objects and experience them as a part of the self. It operates as a silent presence to keep one company when self-cohesion requires bolstering. Corresponding in some ways to the colloquial term “soul mate,” the twinship self object function refers to the experience of a companionate presence that feels and thinks just like oneself. It is akin to the feeling of special connection with someone who uncannily finishes one’s sentences, although this sense of connection goes far deeper to sustain self-cohesion when the self is experienced as being devitalized.

Anima and Animus (Jungian)

copy-and-pasteIn the psychology of Carl Jung, the masculine or feminine inner personality of their respective objects in the unconscious of the mind. It is the symbolic representation of archetypes in dreams and it is your opposite or counterpart. For example, in the unconscious of a man, this archetype finds expression as a feminine inner personality: anima; equivalently, in the unconscious of a woman it is expressed as a masculine inner personality: animus. The anima and animus can be identified as the totality of the unconscious feminine psychological qualities that a man possesses or the masculine ones possessed by a woman, respectively.

Because a male’s sensitivity is often lesser or repressed, the anima is one of the most significant autonomous complexes of all. It is said to manifest itself by appearing in dreams. It also influences a man’s interactions with women and his attitudes toward them and vice versa for women and the animus. Jung said that “the encounter with the shadow is the “apprentice-piece’ in the individual’s development….that the anima is the ‘masterpiece.’ Jung viewed the anima process as being one of the sources of creative ability. In the book “The Invisible Partners” it is said that the key to controlling one’s anima/animus is to recognize it when it manifests and exercise our ability to discern the anima/animus from reality.

 

Human Aggression and Donald Trump

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President elect Donald Trump has not even been inaugurated into office yet and its seems that America is still completely paralyzed by the fear of Trump’s “fundamental-lack-of-anything-remotely-resembling-fitness-for-office thing.” Twitter is still exploding with comments like “just a racist buffoon who treats every fucking thing like a dick-sizing contest” and “you want to know what Trump means for the rest of America? Check out the Book of Job.” Hollywood actress Meryl Strepp even took to the stage to voice her own outrage at the behavior of a man who is about to hold the highest caliber position in America.

Robert Ardrey, a playwright turned science writer commented on the nature of human aggression, “The human being in the most fundamental aspects of his soul and body is nature’s last if temporary word on the subject of the armed predator.” In addition, Dr. Howard E. Evans, professor of zoology at Colorado State University who concluded, “if man is basically aggressive then the continued mouthing of platitudes about brotherly love is clearly no solution.” It seems we prefer the courteous  smile and grace of our former leader than to be told out right in the most radical of terms what America needs to be strong again. We prefer a peacekeeper, a diplomatic negotiator, someone willing to dispense charity with a smile, tact, and a bit of decorum, but human aggression including violence, is a built-in human quality which “civilized man”, and I still have a problem with this concept, has just adapted to fit his own personal lifestyle whether it be passive aggressive and covert or overtly aggressive and radical.

“The blood-bespattered, slaughter-gutted archives of human history from the earliest Egyptian and Sumerian records to the most recent atrocities of the Second World War, accord with early universal cannibalism, with animal and human sacrificial practices or their substitutes in formalized religions, and with the world-wide scalping, heading-hunting, body-mutilating and necrophilia practices of mankind in proclaiming the common bloodlust differentiators, this predacious habit, this mark of Cain that separates man dietetically from his anthropoidal relatives and allies him rather with the deadliest of Carnivora.”

There in lies the truth on Donald Trump’s nature, he possess ancestral DNA, his mark of Cain if you will, a man who is separate and dietetically different from his other anthropoid relatives and rallies with the deadliest of Carnivora; The Wall Street Tycoon, The Banker, and The Politician. These “Mad Hatters” of empires. It just seems that America isn’t ready to do business with a very outspoken particularly radical individual. Oh, and by the way, if you haven’t caught on to his style by now, a lot of the stuff he says, can be dismissed. He seems to be just blowing of steam. Time will tell and this presidency may very well forever define his character, but it doesn’t have to define our nation. He just may make America stronger again.

Word Of The Day And A Brief Survey

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Epigamic

The prefix of the word ‘epi’ means ‘on’ or ‘upon’. The suffix of the word ‘gamic’ means ‘to require fertilization in reproduction; sexual.’

The term Epigamic in evolutionary theory means utilizing or achieving those traits which are believed to be indicators for attraction of the opposite sex for the purpose of mating. In evolutionary theory it is seen typically in the brilliant colored plumage of the male bird. This display of color is an attracting mechanism, an indicator of established dominance. There are other features as well, like song, otherwise known as mating call, and even still more animal vocalizations and behaviors. We  see elaborate displays in nest building prowess that are utilized to attract the female bird, but on a human level:

Males compete with other males on their ability to attract a large following of women and, who, may also use their attributes such as body size, clothing, car, and intelligence.

Females compete with other women on their ability to attract a male based on their attributes, body size, clothing, car, and intelligence.

“Theories of intra-male competition and mate selection by females consistently portray females as non-competitive and ignore the possibility that females too might compete for mates.”

With human beings there is a much longer required behavioral pattern when it comes to our procreating. We require nine months of gestation and at least 25 years of ‘secure’ service from our mate’s time, but clearly there are initial attractors that attract us to our mate(s) from the beginning. Sexual magnetism can clearly have a strong influence on successful procreative outcomes. Since Epigamic therefore means “sexual prowess”;  What traits, as a human being, do you believe to be successful attracting mechanisms, those traits that will be viewed as indicators for established dominance? And what does sexual attraction mean to you? Is it strictly sexual prowess in the act of sexual reproduction or does it mean something more? If so, can you please elaborate any opinions you may have?

Additionally, if someone is threatening your “terroritory” how do you go about securing its “parameters”?  In other words, If your spouse is cheating, what approach do you recommend? Do you feel threatened if he is “looking” at your next door neighbor wearing a bathing suit? Do you rally your other neighbors to incite a campaign of terror on the potential victim? Are these behaviors seen as acceptable? Is there any behaviors that seem completely unacceptable when it comes to the potential loss of a secure mate?

In light of the Women’s Suffrage Movement of the early twentieth century and the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, their established a movement from the less sanctioned living conditions for women of both colors.  Women of today have achieved the right to vote, the right to birth control, the right to hold public office, and the right to wear bikini thong wear at the beach! Whether women actually want to wear this type of clothing at the beach is a completely different issue. At least they have the right to do so if they so choose. Women now get to exercise more of  her influence by wielding her dominance, it’s definitely a cultural phenomenon we are seeing more of in America today. When you take a look at  Mate Guardianship versus America’s Freedom of  Rights, you see the contrast; one is extremely oppressive, while the other is passively aggressive in tone, but still creates social issues and conflicts within its philosophy.

So, any input anyone has regarding this subject will be greatly appreciated. The purpose is to open a discussion regarding the social implications, perceptions of ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ action, as well as a acquiring different insights and perspectives on this particular issue. So, please comment!  A link to consider Female Aggression and Evolutionary Theory

 

Female Aggression; An Evolutionary Theory

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“It is argued that because females have a lower fitness variance and it is more likely that a female will produce at least one offspring that they have less to gain from physical competition among each other and as a result do not engage in competition for mates (Campbell, 1995). However Anne Campbell has made several arguments not only for the existence of female competition but for an evolutionary theory of female competition as well (Campbell 1995; Campbell, Muncer & Odber, 1997; Campbell, Muncer & Bibel, 2001). Campbell argues that the females compete with each other for access to high quality male mates using both physical and indirect aggression. Indirect aggression is characterized by ostracism, verbal harassment and rumor spreading (Burnette & Newman, 2005). When high quality male mates are scarce females who are able to repel other female competitors, by physical means or by social ostracism, have a better chance of reproducing with the higher quality males and producing healthier and more successful offspring.”

I guess some women just need a leash. To read more regarding this theory, click the link below.

Female Aggression; Evolutionary Theory

Governor Christie’s Treatment And Hope First, No More Insurance Denials

Governor Christie addressing the New Jersey State Senate bringing up an excellent point, perhaps to the point of enlightenment, about the scathing hatred at demonizing one group of insured recipients in view of another, the middle working class, whose insurance seems void of addiction coverage. Although his message is in regard to the working middle class who have acquired insurance coverage through Obamacare, it says nothing about the elderly geriatric patient who have to depend on loved ones for assistance with their medical needs, the middle class Medicare recipient. Christie is launching a One-Stop website helping those who are in need of referrals. Dial 1-844-REACH-NJ for insurance help.

Some Spiritual Thoughts On Leadership

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“Anger, resentment, and jealousy doesn’t change the heart of others – it only changes yours.” ~Shannon L. Alder

There comes a point when it becomes important for the American people to stop demonizing President Donald Trump and for President Donald Trump to stop demonizing those who criticize him. We should all take a step back and give the other guy a chance by truly listening to what is being said. Extending charity is another virtue of leadership. If we don’t, what will ensue could become a highly charged verbal accosting of one another. What good is that doing anybody? Do we not want positive behaviors to  be a permanent fixture in the relationship with our American presidency?

The American people and current American presidency must remember that the backbone of leadership holds the fortitude of not succumbing to the critical attacks of the crowd. Its strength lies in its ability to stay upright without being reduced to base primal instincts of aggression and critical opinion. It retains the capability of being able to weather failures with decorum and with the self knowledge that one is never perfect while in this upright position. It seeks for solutions and answers to problems instead of pointing fingers of blame at the short comings of another. It will respectfully withdrawal in the face of an immutable prejudice with the civil knowledge that a new approach must be sought. Part of successful leadership is knowing how to handle the people you instruct and we are all instructors. The American people are no different. Donald Trump obviously has shortcoming, as all Americans do. The larger populace has spoken of their unconscious disconnection with the maternal body; the mother. Feminists have suffered a defeat, but it certainly will not end the movement. We must consciously and continuously remember that it is as Allan Rufus wrote in The Master’s Sacred Knowledge, “Life is like a game of chess. To win you have to make a move. Knowing which move to make comes with in-sight and knowledge, and by learning the lessons that are acculated along the way. We [eventually] become each and every piece within the game called life!” 

Two Ancient Stories Used In Psychoanalytics To Describe The Narcissistic Position (edited)

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Masochism is the love of self turned inward as hate to the point that it flirts with or succumbs to the death instinct.
Sadism is the love of self directed outward as hate at a love object that flirts with or inflicts the destruction of ‘other.’

The Masochistic Element and Ovid’s Metamorphosis

Ovid Metamorphoses.jpgOvid, one of Rome’s greatest poets, predicted that his fame would live on forever and he was right. It is the poem used to describe the highly narcissistic state of masochism found in childhood development. And so, at the heart of the narcissistic position of ego formation lies this very poem. It is a story that describes the life of Narcissus, a handsome young man who is self consumed with his own image and idea of self. When he spurns the love of a wood nymph who secretly tries to embrace him, she recedes into the woods and virtually disappears unable to speak and turns into the mythical creature known as Echo. The wood nymph pleads with the gods before her retreat to curse Narcissus, and so they do. One day after a particularly active hunt, Narcissus rests upon a shore and peers into the water. He sees his own reflection but does not realize it is his own. He believes it is a water nymph and pleads with her for her embrace. When the water nymph does not return the embrace, he slowly dies of starvation and thirst. Unrequited love and the misguided believe that he was not good enough for the water nymph causes Narcissus’ to self inflict pain (hatred of self) in the form of a masochistic tendency, starvation. Winnicott (1953) went on to describe “the not good enough” mothering that can create this ego state of the “not good enough realized self” and Spotnitz (1972) used the myth of Narcissus to counter Freud’s (1914) interpretation and description of narcissism. What it does not describe, and what further investigations in psychoanalytic study have shown, is that there are two character traits tied closely to primary narcissism and which can be prominently displayed in the secondary narcissistic phase of development known as adolescence; sadism and masochism. Common to all individuals is the formation of narcissism which results in formation of the ego, as well as the development of variant levels of both sadism and masochism. These two states, masochism and sadism, have been described by two completely different plays as far as there variant levels and fatality. It should be noted that these two traits, masochism and sadism, can become perverse if disturbances in early childhood are pronounced enough to cause the infliction of psychic pain to such a degree that the ego, acting out dysfunctional defenses and fantasies, allow for there entertainment.

“By contrast, Spotnitz believes that narcissism represents hatred for the outside world, or object, that is not permitted expression. The narcissist fears the consequences if that hate is ever permitted to be discharged outwardly [the roots of these fears lie in child rearing practices, social laws, and religious beliefs]; that it will kill.”

Ovid’s Metamorphoses and the Masochistic Elements Found in Mental Illnesses; Cutting; Trichotillomania; Obsessive Compulsive Disorders; Self Mastication; Anorexia; Bulimia; Other Somatic Disorder; Delinquency in Adolescence and Certain Criminal Behaviors; Narcissistic Personality Disorder; Bondage and Torture in Sex Games (50 Shades of Gray).

The Sadistic Element and Aeschylus’ Oresteia

The other poem that has been used to describe the perverse state of the highly narcissistic ego with strongly influenced tendencies towards sadism is Aeschylus’ Oresteia. The Oresteia is a trilogy of Greek tragedies written by Aeschylus concerning the murder of Agamemnon by Clytaemnestra, the murder of Clytaemnestra by Orestes, the trial of Orestes, the end of the curse brought upon the house of Atreus. It describes the greatest repetition behavior known to man; War, and it is the Oresteia poem that is believed to help describe the state of matricide, the dead mother, at least according to Amber Jacobs’ theory (2007).

Aeschylus’ Oresteian trilogy opens in the royal palace of Argos, home of Agamemnon andaeschylus Clytemnestra and their four children. Agamemnon has been away for ten years leading the Greek army in the war against Troy, leaving Clytemnestra ruling in his absence. The first play dramatizes Agamemnon’s homecoming after the Greeks have successfully sacked Troy. Clytemnestra, who had taken a lover in her husband’s absence, murders Agamemnon on his return as an act o revenge for his murder of their eldest daughter, Iphigenia, at the beginning of the Trojan War. The second play in the trilogy dramatizes the return of Orestes, Agamemnon and Clytemnestra’s son, whom Clytemnestra had banished from Argos when he was a baby, afraid that he would avenge his father’s death. Orestes’ sister Electra has been waiting for her brother’s return in a state of excessive mourning for her father and hatred for her mother, her only hope being that Orestes will return and kill their mother. Orestes returns, and Electra helps him plan the matricide, which Orestes has been ordered to commit by the god Apollo. Orestes kills Clytemnestra and is immediately hounded by the Furies and flees Argos in a state of insanity and guilt. He seeks help from the goddess Athena, who establishes the first court of democratic justice, where Orestes is put on trial. The court case results in a split vote, and Athena is given the crucial casting vote. She sides with Orestes, and he is absolved from his crime. Athena persuades the Furies to give up their cause of fighting for the mother’s rights and instead become “the Kindly Ones” who will protect Athens and support Orestes’ rule.

“The Oresteia is the myth that can function as an analytic tool for women in its capacity to act as a structure that can be used to both interpret and counter the projections systematically forced on women through the workings of the male imaginary. The Oresteia has the potential to be used to analyze the male fantasies surrounding the mother and matricide, so that those fantasies are not repeatedly acted out and projected into women.” (Jacobs 2007) It is theorized to be at the heart of the paranoid schizoid personality constellation, the malevolent psychopathic serial rapist. Men who rape and kill women like the Atlantic City Eastbound Strangler.

Aeschylus’ Oresteia and the Sadistic Elements Found in Mental Illnesses; War; Murder; Rape; Battering of Women; Various Other Violent Crimes Against Women; Delinquency in Adolescence and Certain Criminal Behaviors; Anti-Social Personality Disorder; Variants in Psychopathy (paranoid schizoid position and the malevolent psychopathic killer); Bondage and Torture in Sex Games (50 Shades of Gray).

The normal psyche has an equal distribution and balance between these two tendencies, masochism and sadism in normal ego formation. However, no where near to the point of when it approaches the death instinct  or the belief in the concept of self-preservation and defenses where these instincts and fantasies are acted out in completion. However, I believe there to exist an overlapping between the two myths, and one in which, the overlapping tendencies can seem to converge.

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Carol Kohn “lucidly demonstrates an aspect of the lethal results of the social embodiment, or the acting-out, of unanalyzed phantasies belonging to the male imaginary. Writing the article after she attended a workshop on nuclear weapons, nuclear strategic doctrine, and arms control conducted by distinguished “defense intellectuals,” Kohn shows how the “rational” language of nuclear strategic analysis is blind to its source in unconcscious phantasies arsing from a male wish for parthenogenesis.” (Jacobs 2007)

“There is one set of domestic images that demands separate attention – images that suggest men’s desire to appropriate from women the power of giving life and conflate creation and destruction. The bomb project is rife with images of male birth….This idea of male birth and its accompanying belittling of maternity – the denial of women’s role in the process of creation and the reduction of “motherhood” to the provision of nurturance – seems thoroughly incorporated into the nuclear mentality….In light of the imagery of male birth, the extraordinary names given to the bombs that reduced Hiroshima and Nagasaki to ash and rubble – “Little Boy” and “Fat Man” – at last became intelligible. These ultimate destroyers were the progeny of the atomic scientists – and emphatically not just any progeny but male progeny. In early tests, before they were certain that the bombs would work, the scientists expressed their concern by saying they hoped the baby was a boy, not a girl – that is, not a dud….The entire history of the bomb project, in fact, seems permeated with imagery that confounds man’s overwhelming technological power to destroy nature with the power to create – imagery that inverts men’s destruction and asserts in its place the power to create new life and a new world. It converts men’s destruction into their rebirth.” 

Since Freud’s issuing a navel as signifier or metaphor for the blind spot of the unconscious is of great significance when we think about the navel as the scar that signifies the cutting of the umbilical cord. It is the point of connection and disconnection with the maternal body – that is, it is the point of contact and severance with the unknown.

“Interpreting the [primitive] register of mythical delirium in the embodied social [patriarchal] world aims to put the world back in touch with what has been split off, disavowed, and repressed, with a view to countering the effects of those unconscious mechanisms that result in the denial of women’s ontological status, if not the destruction of the planet.” (Jacobs 2007)

It is these very unconscious primal, bloody, aggressive, fantasies and imaginaries towards women that are played out, in either defense of the ego, or in conscious fantasies stemming from this disconnection as Carol Kohn had observed in the rational world of defense intellectuals. From this idea a whole range of ideas could be inferred and interpreted. I certainly can see where these primal bloody roots of rage in unconscious fantasy can be inferred not just in men, but in women as well. There lies a marginalized group of women, that is ever growing larger today, who by all accounts share similar fantasies. They have been termed by some social scientists and psychologists as “Deadly Women.” 

Destruction Of Communal Property; More On The Narcissistic Condition

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“If it’s mine, I can destroy it.”

One of my past blog posts discussed what it was like living with a mentally ill family member. For a long time I could not understand why this individual wanted to contaminate my food with foreign substances that resembled mucus vomit and made my food items smell and taste funny. At first, these contaminations were due primarily because their narcissism had been injured due, in part, by a belief that orders were not being followed. Undergoing yet another onslaught of contimatination of this type, and luckily my serendipitous discovery of the recent book I’m reading on the narcissistic position, I have come to further my understanding behind the reasons why this continues to happen. Its reasons lie in the perception of “communal property” and their own sadistic narcissistic position. Consider the following excerpt:

“A student complains about the ugly condition of the school building and is found few minutes later writing his nickname on the desk with a felt marker; when asked why, he says, “Well, my name isn’t the only one on the desk.” When asked why he just punched in a stairwell windowpane he may reply, “It was broken already.” This ubiquitous sense of possession is not the healthy communal property ownership known in some parts of the world. It is a mental attitude more on the order of, “If it’s mine, I can destroy it.”

These observations are not intended to expose or to deplore the atrocities committed against schools and teachers by destructive students…….The student collective, in actively blocking out the anger it feels toward the harsh world, presents a confused and detached personality to the world outside.”

If you consider Erikson’s adolescent pubertal stage, Stage V, of his developmental theory, these behaviors can be interpreted as a sign of some previous and ongoing type of identity crisis. This phenomenon is not only seen in black urban youths, but also in the ethnically fragmented social aggregates of even the most “normal” white middle-class schoolrooms. With regard to my personal struggles that prevail me, the continuation of these behaviors implies to me that these individuals are still struggling with their own personal on-going sense of self. In short, their extended on-going identity crisis due to disturbances within  primary as well as secondary developmental stages of narcissism. If help is not sought they will continue to  carrying on their identity crisis through their primary, middle, and late adulthood. My mentally ill family members’ belief that “If I help you, then you are mine. I, therefore, can destroy you or any property you own” is at the hearty of this abnormal personality constellation. It is also at the heart of some of the abnormal misguided beliefs found in the psychology of Saudi men about the women they guard, a behavior otherwise known as mate guarding.

Some Brief Notes On The Narcissistic Position

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“Rochlin concludes that aggression always issues as a result of damaged narcissism.”

In Freud’s paper (1914) entitled “On Narcissism,” he characterized it as a turning of one’s power for relating to the outside world with love (libido) back onto oneself. Spotnitz (1972) offers different interpretation. It will be recalled that the myth of Narcissus concerns a hunter who spurns the love of a wood nymph. The heartbroken nymph invokes the gods to punish cruel Narcissus by causing him to fall in love and have no love returned to him. The gods hear the nymph’s plea and punish Narcissus. One day, after a particularly fatiguing hunt, Narcissus rests on the shore of a beautiful lake. On gazing into the lake he sees his own reflection; but not knowing it is his own image, he presumes it to be a water nymph of surpassing beauty. He pleads with the nymph to allow him to embrace her, but each time he tries to grasp the lovely creature she disappears. Narcissus remains, transfixed by his elusive image, until he finally dies of starvation and thirst.

Spotnitz advances the interpretation that narcissus, rather than attack the frustrating image, turns his hatred upon himself. Narcissus mistakenly believes that he is unworthy and starves in the attempt to make amends to a cruel and unyielding object. This is where the idea of Winnicott’s the “Not Good Enough” mothering creates the feeling of “Not Good Enough” attitudes in mind of the child, thus creating a sense of false-self disorders. This interpretation, applied psychoanalytically, is essentially different from that of Freud, who saw narcissism as the turning of love away from the world and inward upon the self, in selfish modes of behavior. By contrast, Spotnitz believes that narcissism represents hatred for the outside world, or object, that is not permitted expression. The narcissist fears the consequences if that hate is ever permitted to be discharged outwardly, the roots of these fears lie in childrearing practices, social laws, and religious beliefs; that it will kill. The individual becomes incapable of relating to the outside world because of the hate that he fears will escape. Rather, he turns it inward upon the self and presents a confused and helpless image to the world. In the most extreme cases the narcissist attacks his own mind with such success that he render himself psychotic and nonfunctional.

According to Spotnitz, narcissism unconsciously intensifies when love objects are lost, and hatred for the outside world is not permitted expression due to fear of the consequences. Spotnitz’s theory of narcissism is similar to Freud’s first theory of masochism (1905-19), in which masochism was seen as a transformation of sadism. (Nagera, 1970). In the paper “Instincts and Their Vicissitudes,” Freud (1915) formulated that “masochism is actually sadism turned round upon the subject’s own ego.” Freud’s second formulations of masochism (1919-24) saw it as a regressive phenomenon deriving from an unconscious need for punishment. In the paper “A Child Is Being Beaten” (1919) , he describes this form of masochism: “It is not only a punishment for the forbidden genital relation, but also the regressive substitute for the relation, and from this latter source it derives the libidinal excitation which is from this time forward attached to it.” Freud’s third formulation of masochism (1924-37) was the theory of the death instinct. In this later conception, Freud also postulated primary as well as secondary masochism and distinguished the three forms of erotogentic, feminine, and moral masochism. Primary masochism is related to primary narcissism and is believed to develop during the first stage of Erikson’s developmental theory, birth to 18 months with its onset at about 4 months. Secondary narcissism develops during stage 5, puberty, and is where the fetish for sadomasochism in erotic sexualized behavior can begin as well, thus there are a few different ways in which primary and secondary narcissism can develop, and so too, elements of sadism and masochism which are both closely tied to this notion of narcissism.

Although Spotnitz’s formulation of narcissism is not identical with Freud’s first theory of masochism, it is similar enough to warrant useful differentiation from it. In both theories – Freud’s formulation of masochism and Spotnitz’s theory of narcissism – anger and aggression are turned inward on the self. For Freud, however, masochism is the passive form of an instinctual drive (aggression), which was originally cruelty to an external object, transformed into a “passive instinct of cruelty” turned on the subject’s own ego. For Spotnitz, the internalized hatred is also originally directed toward the outside world, but the hatred is turned against the self rather than the outside world not because of any transformation of instinctual energy but rather because the individual fears the consequences of discharging the aggression outwardly.

Rochlin’s (1973) conception of narcissism, while related to Spotnitz’s, seems more sophisticated. Whereas Freud’s second formulation of narcissism, noted above, sees egocentric aims as opposing the social condition and narcissism serving as the regressive substitute for forbidden genital relations, Rochlin sees social needs as always operating, even in instances where people appear to “thrive on isolation.” According to Rochlin, the injuries to self-esteem that occur due to loss of love objects can be repaired only through relational ships with another. The narcissistic state, therefore, is one in which loss of self-esteem occurs and, here is some measure agreeing with Spotnitz, Rochlin concludes that aggression always issues as a result of damaged narcissism. Either a conscious or unconscious narcissistic fear that cannot be introjected and thus remains unsublimated, lingers in the mind of the individual and causes psychic pain that remains, until action, either internalized or externalized, relieves the anxiety. The lowering of self-esteem which “mobilizes aggression” may result in aggression turned on the self, and as unrelieved aggression, further compromise self-esteem. This causes depression, a sense of self-defeat, and a “brittle indifference to others.” Increasing demands are made on relationships to the point where the relationship themselves may be broken off because of the verbalized aggression, causing neurotic conflict and aborting social relationships. Thus, these two modern theories both conclude that narcissism and aggression are related concepts.

With regard to the recent act of random violence which happened at the Fort Lauderdale Airport in Florida yesterday. Mitscherlich (1963) advances

“In the absence of direct and immediate instruction in practical life under the parental eye, and the consequent lack of dependable tradition in this respect, contemporaries orient themselves by each other. The peer group – that is to say, one’s contemporaries at school and place of residence and work – becomes the guiding line of behavior.” (p. 149)

Mitscherlich (1963) further advances that

“The collapse of paternal authority automatically sets in train a search for a new father on whom to rely…..The weakness of fallibility of the father has to be made good and wiped out by putting in his place a new one of still undiminished strength.” (pp. 300-301)

My own personal commentary for the struggles that continue to prevail me. I feel I am dealing with someone who has either a primary knowledge of, or an advanced knowledge of the fundamentals of Narcissism. Along with this knowledge they have the capability to manipulate human bodies, through advanced technological means of radio frequency, to make circumstances appear other than what they truly are. My question: “How does a malevolent psychopath, one that has a high degree of sadism in their narcissistic constellation make another personality whose narcissistic constellation is influenced by masochistic tendency make it look like the masochistic personality is committing slow suicide? Thus, the perfect illusion in the smoke and mirrors mind play of the psychopath?”  What was Freud’s position in his paper “A Child Is Being Beaten” (1919)?

Twighlight’s of Wisdom questions the omission of sadomasochism from the Diagnostic Statistical Manual for Mental Illness.