“Alienated Man” and Various Associated Personality Disorders

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Notice the word “Electro-Convulsive”

The use of the term narcissistic personality or character has been established in the psychoanalytic literature since the 1930s. Historically, it stems from Freud’s original division of clinical conditions into the psychoneuroses, the actual neuroses, and the narcissistic neuroses. Freud’s meaning of narcissistic neurosis subsumed some conditions which were later incorporated into yet an additional category of the character neuroses. In the early 1900s, however, the term “narcissistic neuroses” was used by Freud to include a number of regressive psychotic and conditions which were not amenable to psychotherapeutic techniques in use at that time (see Rosenfeld, 1964). These included some overt schizophrenic conditions as well as latent schizophrenia and what later would be considered schizoid or narcissistic personality. In the past 30 years, the meaning of the term narcissistic neurosis or narcissistic personality began to be more definitive of a borderline state of functioning typified by sever but no psychotic estrangement from both self and social environment.

Freud’s use of the word “narcissistic” carries the implication of narcissism in the sense of a primary, objectless ego state. Kohut and Kernberg have clarified the nature of what they define as pathological narcissism (Kohut, 1971); Kernberg, 1974). Additionally, Kernberg (1972) has depicted a series of stages during early childhood where faulty incorporation of internal objects occurs in certain selected varieties of narcissistic personality.

In common parlance as well as in its mythological derivation, the word “narcissism” is used to suggest a relatively superficial and fatuous self-absorption, which is more suggestive of hysteroid or immature adaptations. In these connections, the word is associated with demands for gratification and cherishment based upon the continuation of a compensatory overvaluation of self. Etymologically, of course, the problem is that the latter connotations of “narcissism” are distinctly different from those which are connected with primary narcissism. In centering on the semantic connected to the process of “splitting,” the Bleulerian term “schizoid” evades some of this confusion. Again, regardless of terminology, there seems to be a genuine consensus concerning the nature of these conditions. There also is agreement concerning the technical difficulties in the psychotherapeutic treatment of such states.

It is necessary to discuss some of the terminologies which have been applied to malignant states of isolation and self-estrangement. The clinical portrait of “Alienated Man,” with regards to psychoanalysis and psychiatry, is to be understood that I use the word “man” in its generic sense, so that references to “Alienated Man” and “his” experience of “himself” are abstractions that stand for individual men and women…..Other terms designating what I here call “Alienated Man” include “schizoid personality, narcissistic personality, Protean Man.(See definitions listed below) (Cf. Fairbairn, 1954; Kohut, 1971; Fromm, 1961; Lifton, 1971: Daly, 1968; Laing, 1960; Riesmann, 1961; Jourard, 1964.)

To clarify, it is my opinion “Alienated Man” refers to the schizoid personality or narcissistic personality disorder. It must be stressed that these individuals are not social isolates or alienates as the term “Alienated Man” suggests, rather these individuals can appear quiet gregarious and social in context. The term “Alienated Man” refers to the alienation the individual experienced in sublimating and incorporating “love objects” into their psychic apparatus. They become alienates because of their self-centered narcissistic states. “Internalized objects are held to be representations of outside experiences that are incorporated by the infant and child in the process of longitudinal development.” Estrangement from “self” and “other love objects” as described by the narcissistic state of development should not be considered “diseased” in and of itself. In proper balance, preservation of the self maintains a person’s ability to differentiate when and where love and care should or should not be given for the best possible outcomes of survival. It is the balance of this incorporated social awareness that creates a healthy narcissism. It is only when these estrangements become perverse and severely distorted that they are considered mentally diseased. These estrangements during “normal” development are necessary for one’s own survival, continuity of life, and balanced cooperation with “other.” During adolescence, or secondary narcissism, the distantiations of separating the internalized self, or self-identity, in the process of segregating those individuals and things we consider separate from ourselves can become quite pronounced.

“Alienated Man” is alienated to the extent that he does not seek cooperation through self-sacrifice, cooperation, and a feeling of unity. Rather, they seek manipulation through self-serving goals, discord, and chaos. Lack of intimacy, as in feelings of disconnected love towards “other” or a lack of feeling of brotherhood among men, because the “Alienated Man” has become disconnected toward loving “other(s)” as normal man is want to do for his continued survival. Delusions and fears may reek havoc on his mind and can drive his warped personality and perceptions toward malignant and malevolent ends. “Alienated Man” does not refer to avoidant personalities as seen in avoidant personality disorder and the tendency to confuse the two should be carefully scrutinized.

In addition, it becomes critical to differential between the schizoid state of the drug user versus the schizoid state of a psychopathic variant. For example the malevolent psychopath who does not use drugs or alcohol, with regard to the lack of difference in their conscious state of awareness and empathy toward others is more severe than the former. In the conscious state of a schizoid drug user or alcoholic, there exists only an transient state of acute lack of conscious awareness and empathy towards other. Once the drug user or alcoholic stops using, his conscious state of awareness may be re-intact. However, with the schizoid psychopathic individual there may exist a perverse lack of conscious state of awareness and empathy towards other. This state, in my opinion, is more chronic and is less easily fixed because they may possess a deep seated delusions about themselves and others that is not as readily corrected by just abstaining from drugs or alcohol. So the levels and the variants need to be carefully examined, analyzed, and addressed as one diagnosed variant may respond better to traditional psychotherapeutic remedies than the other.

In modern times the use of electro-magnetic therapies have been suggested as a curative medicine. Medical personnel have to watch more carefully if using these technologies. They may be doing more harm than good completely stripping an individual of their basic human rights. Historically speaking, the use of electro-magnetic shock therapy was used as a means of controlling diseased behavior and has come to be viewed as inhumane and any further use of these types of technologies should be carefully considered. I often wonder who the sicker party is, the medical practitioner wielding the therapy or the patient?

***Terms Defined

Schizoid Personality is characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary or sheltered lifestyle, secretiveness, emotional coldness, and apathy. Affected individuals may be unable to form intimate attachments to others and simultaneously demonstrate a rich, elaborate, and exclusively internal fantasy world.

Narcissistic Personality is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by exaggerated feelings of self-importance, an excessive need for admiration, and a lack of understanding others’ feelings. People affected by it often spend a lot of time thinking about achieving power or success, or about their appearance. They often take advantage of the people around them. The behavior typically begins by early adulthood, and occurs across a variety of situations.

Protean Man as described by Robert Jay Lifton (1971) is an analysis of the psychological patterns emerging in contemporary life. The Protean style is characterized by constant shifts in identification and belief, and results from such broad factors as the velocity of historical change, the revolution in mass media, and the effects of 20th-century holocaust. The self can no longer be considered a fixed concept in psychiatry, and the term self-process is preferable.

 

A Valentine’s Day Message For You (edited)

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It’s Valentine’s Day and what better way to say “I Love You!” than with sex, candy, and some Victoria Secret’s lingerie? I am deviating from my original page’s theme in celebration of this sexually themed holiday. I was going to write a block post about the origins of Valentine’s Day starting with St. Valentine………..BORING!!!! We all know the roots of most traditional holidays began with some Pagan holiday or festival. So, Valentine’s Day probably originated from some fertility fest found in one of these ancient cultures. Sex fests were a pretty common theme in ancient history as the people recognized early on in these ancientcandy-image cultures that without sex there could be no conception, and without conception there could be no offspring, and with no offspring there could be no continued existence. Fertility festivals vary in their different ancient cultural themes and although ritually different displays mark each unique culture‘s celebration, the message still pretty much stayed the same. Thank you god for my reproductive success! Sometimes an offering or gift was given to the fertility god in the temple or a generous donation made to the temple priest, who by the way has now been replaced by your local retail dealer or local Hallmark store. Anybody make a donation yet? Anyone born November 14th?

What better way to show your gratitude for the very organs that gave you life and helped to sustain that life? What better way to give thanks for our reproductive capabilities than to shine some tender love and care on your partner‘s genitalia? What better way to give thanks to the god who has granted us the ability to experience sexual ecstasy in this ultimate act of close intimate bonding? That reminds me, don’t forget to send a card to your parents too, they were your former gods who breathed the very life you own into you!

In life, is there anything better than that which is rooted in this life sustaining act? Anything more gratifying? Anything more pleasuring? So grab your guy or grab your girl, pull the shades, and dim the light. Enjoy this day of celebration with sex and romance and give thanks to your precious origins. A spark of creative culinary inspirations!  Boob Cakes! Nothing says I love you quite like being nurtured by the breast (or penis). After all, the life-sustaining act of breast feeding set in motion our very sexual energies and drives, or at least according to Freud it did. May all of you enjoy a very Happy Valentine’s Day with your spouse or significant other!

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The Human Brain and Aggression

 

The parts of the brain brought to you by two cartoon lab mice; Pinky and the Brain.

Human aggression is so wide spread in the Western world it’s prompted research into the effects of brain stimulation with electrical stimulus. Research has shown us stimulation of the amygdala in cats results in attack behavior. The physiological signs of rage, as well as erection of the hair, elevation of blood pressure, increased respiration also occur. What is striking about the behavior is that it is directed. A cat will attack a rat in a cage and even stalk it. The behavior is not automatic or inflexible. In monkeys, this effect is even more striking. Unlike cats, monkeys are social creatures. Stimulation elicits attack behavior only if a safe object is present. A rhesus monkey will not attack a social superior, but it will attack an inferior or stuffed toy tiger. Stimulation that will elicit aggressive behavior of a dominant monkey toward a subordinate or submissive one will altogether fail to induce such behavior in the same animal in the presence of a newly introduced dominant animal. Indeed, the formerly dominant monkey now exhibits all the signs of submissive behavior. The animal simply does not react in an automatic manner, but evaluates the situation and responds with the appropriate behavior. In humans, stimulation in certain areas of the brain produces feelings of anxiety, depression, anger, fright, and horror, but it does not elicit attack. One woman reported she wanted to slap the experimenter, but she did not do so.

This information is of particular interest and it is provocative to ponder. It should be emphasized the production of aggressive attack behavior by brain stimulation in experimental animals does not presents a good model for what goes on in the human brain. What can be concluded is the presence of a higher governing executive authority known as “social conscious awareness.” Human beings are more likely to respond to social situations with socially acceptable behaviors, even under the duress of stressors like artificial stimulation.

The laboratory findings show that in experimental animals fear, rage, and attack can be evoked in many, but not in all subjects by stimulation of specific locations in the brain. And this is possible because stimulation bypasses the normal sensory channels and directly activates parts of the brain that would be activated if the individual actually were in a frightening, unpleasant, or dangerous situation. However, the reason why stimulation can elicit these responses is that the individual has had such experiences in the past – that is, he or she has been in frightening, unpleasant, or dangerous situations – and these particular areas of the brain were activated on those occasions. Subsequently one can fool the individual into thinking that the same environmental events are presented by electrically stimulating the regions of the brain that were active on those earlier occasions.

It is important to note that even when one taps right into the system of stimulation, the resulting behavior is by no means automatic. The cat attacks the first thing it sees. It makes the “logical” inference that if it is experiencing fright or anger, and possibly even pain, whatever it sees near it is responsible, and it acts accordingly. The monkey may draw the same inference, but its decision to attack or not is based on the social status of the other monkey who is present. A human carries this process further. A human may recognize the fact that the individual who is present is not necessarily responsible for the unpleasant sensations; and, second, even if that individual is seen to be responsible – for example, the experimenter who turned on the current – even then, social constraints prevent a direct attack. It is clear, then, that definite parts of the brain are involved in aggression, and it is equally clear that stimulation of these areas does not result in automatic, thoughtless aggression divorced from the animal’s past experience.

Conscious awareness and the extended time required for human beings to rear their offspring provides humanity the function and time needed to help install conscious awareness, also known as the superego, in their individual offspring. Even at the end of eighteen or twenty-two years of age, we still are not finished practicing. We have spiritual practice to help aid, guide, and further facilitate the necessary equipment for strong social bonding.

Psychoanalysis; A Spiritual Experience

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“Pride creates a noise within us which makes the quiet voice of the Spirit hard to hear. And soon, in our vanity, we no longer even listen for it. We can come quickly to think we don’t need it” (“Prayer,” “Ensign,” Nov. 2001, 16).

This quotation touches on the ideas of Pride and Vanity. They are the ego-mind with all its rooted narcissism. Religion and Psychology are so closely related that I find myself often revisiting this Truth of philosophy:

“The greater purpose of spirituality, and that of religion as well, is even in the presences of a lack of proof for God’s existence, even if that proof disprove him, the willingness of the individual to be dedicated to the continued study of spiritual practice for the purpose of achieving a higher conscious state of awareness. A state that will help pull him out of his own egocentricity, his own suffering, and his own Hell.”

Pride is defined as a feeling or deep pleasure or satisfaction derived from one’s own achievements, the achievements of those with whom one is closely associated, or from qualities or possessions that are widely admired or to be especially proud of a particular quality or skill. Vanity is defined as excessive pride in or admiration of one’s own appearance or achievements. Something that is vain, empty, or valueless, a fashionable trifle or knicknack. These two sins are discussed and taught in various religions and Bible study groups. They are warned against in various different scriptures and religious writings as well. The famous quote, “Pride goeth before the fall” is actually a misquote of Proverbs 16:18 which says, “Pride goes before destruction, and a haughty spirit before a fall.” This shows that destruction is the end result of pride, at least according to the Bible book of Proverbs.

Characteristic to psychopathy is this notion that the psychopathic individual is elevated in his perceptions and understanding. He believes he is within full power and right to “teach” another about the errors of their ways. It is for this reason so many psychopathic individuals have risen to ranks of power over the weaker minded follower and can easily influence these individuals into doing their dirty work. In light of this idea, I must pose the question, “Who has any right to assume leadership and authority over another in an attempt to “teach” others correctly?” Does not a human being have a right to choose for himself that for which he desires to study and learn? It must be difficult for a Mormon ministers or Jehovah’s Witness ministers to walk away from a slammed door, especially if the person believes in his heart and soul he holds the power, the secret, the key to transform the lives of those who live behind that door. Still, our country was founded in certain freedoms. Religious freedom has been built into our country’s constitution and we cannot force these notions onto other people. We can only state softly and clearly that for which we have come to know and believe for ourselves, any other behavior may be held accountable in a criminal or civil court of law.

Entering psychoanalysis with the purpose to be cured of a problem becomes a very spiritual experience for the individual. Also, one may find the study of psychology and psychoanalysis just as spiritually enlightening. This should come as no surprise since the approach to studying psychology and psychoanalysis is more than merely science. There is also a philosophical approach to understanding them. Since philosophy is incorporated into the hallways and promenades of many different areas of acadamia, including the science of psychology and psychoanalysis, religious and spiritual philosophies must be considered as these experiences are unique to the individual patients experiencing them. Knowing and appreciating how these experiences relate to people as individuals becomes an important key to helping others. One soon finds that it becomes prudent to understand these concepts and as it becomes of immense value to one’s daily practice of living if one is to extend help to others so they may, too, attain wellness.

Jungian Therapy, The Numinous, & The Spirit That Resides Within

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Anima and Animus by Melissa Currie

“Woman is compensated by a masculine element and therefore her unconscious has, so to speak, a masculine imprint. This results in a considerable psychological difference between men and women, and accordingly I have called the projection-making factor in women the animus, which means mind or spirit.

The animus is the deposit, as it were, of all woman’s ancestral experiences of man – and not only that, he is also a creative and procreative being, not in the sense of masculine creativity, but in the sense that he brings forth something we might call….the spermatic world.”

A brief note from the perspective of Jungian analysis. Jung through his study of archetypal or “numinous,” symbolic experience and what that means for the patient is “the approach to uncover their numinous is the real therapy” and that to assist with this, the therapist “must abandon all preconceived notions and, for better or worse, go with him in search of the religious and philosophical ideas that best correspond to the patient’s emotional states.” It is for this reason that many individuals seek the religious and spiritual perspectives of Jungian therapy.

The numinous experience means transcendent experience: human experience that is imbued with a feeling of something holy, divine, or mystical. Spiritual experience, however, is not usually a psychotherapeutic topic (except with reference to delusions or psychoses). Whether it should be or not depends on one’s worldview and philosophy, but it is clear that Jung gave religion and spirituality the highest value. He sometimes described the goals of psychotherapy specifically in religious terms. “The goal is transformation,” he once said, “….the only criterion of which is the disappearance of ego hood,” which is a Buddhist concept; or, when describing the experience of the Self, an analytic goal that is also a God-concept, “Yet not I live, but Christ liveth in me,” which is Christian doctrine from St. Paul.

It’s important for the patient to have an understand of his’ or her’s unique psychological problems in order to effectively confront them and “certainly, anyone who has transcendent or conversion experiences can be healed by them or, as Jung also noted, overwhelmed by them.” Jung’s approaches were encouraging to those seeking and creating deeper, sometimes uniquely spiritual meaning in their lives, and their Jungian paths sometimes involved direct transpersonal experience through introspection and imagination. From a religious perspective, transcendental experiences would probably be considered acts of grace (or illusions), outside of psychotherapeutic intention. Religious “close encounters” should be responded to empathetically and with guided aid to help the patient understand what they mean to him or her and that goes as well for anything that is presented during a therapy session. For Jung, the solution is in the spirit, but Jungian therapy needs to be able to relate to mundane psychopathology and the more deeply disturbed patients often seen today, who cannot be effectively approached with a primarily archetypal-symbolic method. It is for this reason that Jungian therapy isn’t for everyone. Jung himself recognized that most of his patients were what he called “the walking well.” He also noted they were culturally sophisticated individuals with previous therapy experience. They were also well adapted to society and thus concerned and able to be concerned about problems of self-realization. Jung said, “About a third of my cases are not suffering from any clinically definable neurosis, but from the senselessness and aimlessness of their lives. I should not object if this were called the general neurosis of our age. Fully two thirds of my patients are in the second half of life.” Without diminishing this insight about twentieth-century alienation and about the nature of personal suffering – since emotional pain is not necessarily correlated with psychopathology – it still seems that a good number of individuals within our societies, even today, are still suffering from this same “senselessness and aimlessness” of their lives.

Have you ever uncovered your numinous or the presiding spirit that resides within you? Or have you ever dreamed of your anima or animus which is your symbolic opposite?

Opening quote from Anima and Animus, The Collected Works of Carl Jung

How To Become Karma Free

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“If you want to be Karma free go back to the original source of “prana.” So that is why our whole focus is how to go beyond the mind into the cosmic energy field and cosmic “I am.” Consciousness and energy. So as you learn the practice of Amrit Yoga and Yoga Nidra it’s all about how to go beyond the past conditioning. How to re-enter the present so you can see what is as is, but your preprogrammed past has lost touch with what is as is. Why? Because preprogrammed past has moved far away from the presence which can see what is as is. Having been separated from the presence it cannot see what is present. And therefore you look for love from outside. Why? Because your “I am” which is identified with the preprogrammed condition self-image is separated from the source of love within you. Therefore it is born looking from outside, and outside it is that means the ego mind has moved from the center of polarity, center of unity within and it is seeking from outside, so as it lives outside of the center from within, what it looks for is love from outside, and love from “other.” So what is yoga? Turned back inside. What do you have to do? You have to let go of anybody who has ever abused you, or has taken advantage of you, or has hurt you; your parents, your children, your ex-wife, your husband, everything. You have to let go of that. So then, only then, you will be dismantling from the Karmic past “belief systems” and persona, “the mask.” As you leave from the mask, the real you will begin to emerge.” ~From the teachings of Yogi Amrit Desai

Amrit Yoga Institute and Emotional Puking

Yogi Amrit Desai teaching about human consciousness and the effect it has on the body. He speaks about the old emotional baggage we carry with us from our past and that baggage we live with from day to day which can be regurgitated in the present in a concept known as “Emotional Puking.” The negative experience and energy resurfaces to effect us negatively. The solution to this problem is conscious awareness and meditation.

More from the Amrit Yoga Institute

Human Aggression and Destructive Game Play

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Image of two female boxers.

“So important to group living to the higher primates that when individuals are separated from their groups, they suffer. R.A. Butler, in a study of “Curiosity in Monkeys,” has demonstrated that to a monkey the simple sight of another monkey is more welcome than food.”

This was proven by a Duke University Research study. “Rhesus macaques at Duke University Medical Center’s monkey colony are able to trade fruit juice for peeks at photos of female perinea (the scientific term for “bright pink monkey butt”). Researchers led by neurobiologist Michael Platt have consistently found that males are willing to trade juice to view these images and will trade more juice to look at monkey erotica than any other image, including powerful males or friendly female faces.”

In many important studies with rhesus monkeys, researchers have found that deep psychological harm can be inflicted on the young of these species if they are separated from their parents. This can and does sometimes happens in the wild and Jane van Lawick-Goodall has told of “a little male chimpanzee who had lost his mother and who became progressively more isolated, neurotic, stunted in growth, and who eventually died of a polio infection.” This sometimes happens with married couples who have enjoyed a period of longevity together. After the death of one of the spouses, the other spouses soon succumbs in death as well.

It is my opinion that the psyche of the adult human primate can be just as delicate than that of newly born offspring. The isolation and stunted growth that comes with the onset of disease which can further isolate and alienate individuals, and with the capabilities man has harnessed with the manipulation and use of electro-magnetic frequency can further complicate matters and our very delicate psychological health. This technology can illicit outward symptoms of apparent illness causing further isolation and alienation among adult male and female humans and the use of this technology is enough to spark public outrage to its possible sinister uses! Proof this technology is being used  can be summed up as follows: the brain works on two signatures, one chemical, and one electrical.

In this light, human beings are very similar to the ancestral forebears: “the most severe punishment short of death our society metes out to wrongdoers is solitary confinement. And loneliness is widely considered the most severe malady one can suffer. We are true primates in our emotional reliance on each other.” So what am I suggesting? I am suggesting that man has harnessed the capability to thin his heard, thereby getting away with murder except making it look like illness. Call me a conspiracy theorist, I don’t care. What I do know, is that this has been happening and it is happening to me and the people around me that I love.

Evolutionary biologists have repeatedly stressed that human evolution could not have played out as much as it did without our reciprocal mutual respect, mutual aid, and mutual cooperation. Our development of linguistic skills and higher problem solving capabilities have also allowed for the formation of highly sophisticated technological advancements as well as advancements in game play with all its destructive possibilities. Strategic operations and securing resources we need for our preservation and survival which has evolved the mutation we have come to know as the psychopath. Much like gender identity, the roots of psychopathy are both biological and social. That is to say, psychopaths have a predilection located on their DNA which aid in their personality formation as well as social reinforces that help promote behavior. Those internal lights that light up the brain and reward a person for behavior.

The anti-thesis to this argument of course is that hatred, conflict, and obstruction facilitates the “other’s” survival. Eliminating a perceived threat, even if that threat is delusional, seeks a grander purposes of self-preservation and here in lies the roots of man’s psychopathy. No longer living in closely knit packs on the open plains of the African Savannah, we now live in fragmented packs living in the tightly closed spaces of the concrete jungle where jobs and resources are scarce and competition fierce. Today, even more than ever before in our primate ancestral history, we have become hard pressed to seek and secure without empathy those things required for our survival. No longer enjoying unconstrained time structures, we have sacrificed some of the most important things we require for healthy living; bonding time with our family, being present in nature, and accepting and being happy with less than more. The ever elusive dollar and need for accumulated wealth has forsaken our basic primate needs. If we were ever to place an actual dollar value on these commodities I wonder what economists, lawyers, and financiers would recommend as a price tag? Also, how much would it be worth to destroy your enemy? Just ask MI6 what they dole out for sharp shooter when one is required.

Quotes taken from “The Nature of Human Aggression” by Ashley Monagu and “A Billion Wicked Thoughts” by Ogi Ogas
Disclaimer: The use of sports related performance drills, like the ones found in boxing and kick boxing, can be a fun way to relieve stress and help provide health benefits, provided that you don’t turn these skills on to your neighbor when he or she parks in your parking space or accidentally takes you newspaper.

 

Dimorphism In Nature; One-Part He and One-Part She

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An image of a bilateral gynandromorph, Hypolimnas bolina, otherwise known as the Blue Moon Butterfly

The difference in appearance between a species’ males and females is called sexual dimorphism. The term implies that there’s a bisecting line between sexes, a clear divide. But in the animal kingdom, a lot of creatures straddle it. The natural world is replete with hermaphrodites, animals that may outwardly appear male or female but have the reproductive organs of both. Their less common cousins are gynandromorph, animals that are a mosaic of male and female traits – say, the size and coloring of one with the genitalia of the other.

Rarer yet is the bilateral gynandromorph (above), an animal that’s half him and half her, Bilateral Gynandromorph6.jpgsplit at the midline. The phenomenon has been documented in birds, crustaceans – and butterflies. Evolutionary biologists Josh Jahner explains “what most scientists think happens” to form these outliers: Butterflies’ sex chromosome are the reverse of humans’ – males have two alike (ZZ), and females have two different (ZW). A female’s egg sometimes contain a double nuclei, a Z and a W. When they’re “double fertilized” by a male’s Z sperm, the resulting embryo is half each sex. That is to say, their chromosomal aberration is ZZZW. Out of 30,000 butterflies found and raised in a lab only five bilateral gynandromorphs emerged.

THE DRAW BACK: The bilateral gynandromorphs appear to be sterile. They apparently fail at laying eggs, likely because of an irregularity in their reproductive systems. So their breed sports a striking fusion of color, it’s a beauty they apparently can’t pass on.

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A bilateral gynandromoroph Northern Cardinal.
To read more regarding gender identity check out the January 2017 Issue of National Geographic. It is a special issue published regarding the Gender Revolution.

 

For The Love Of Alcohol (edited)

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“Alcoholic beverages were a by-product of civilization, not central to it. Even the website of the German Brewers’ Federation takes the line that beer was likely an offshoot of bread making by the first farmers.” ~Andrew Curry

For more than 9,000 years humans have maintained a long-term relationship with alcohol. More than just a mind altering substance, alcohol has fueled the development of arts, language, and religion. “Our ape ancestors started eating fermented fruits on the forest floor, and that made all the difference, we were pre-adapted for consuming alcohol,” says Nathaniel Dominy, a biological anthropologist at Dartmouth College. This “drunken monkey” hypothesis suggests that monkeys who could get to the fermenting fruit at the bottom of the forest floor faster had higher chances of survival and copulation rates. Fermenting fruit has more sugar calories making it a high calorie food source and, one that would have served our active primate ancestors well. The ethanol properties, although low in concentration, would have had antimicrobial properties to help fight diseases as well. There is very little scientific evidence of animals in the wide ever getting enough alcohol from fermented fruit to exhibit “drunken behavior.” It would be more along the lines of a “satisfied glow.”

Evidence suggests that a critical gene mutation that occurred in our last common ancestor of African apes, dated at about 10 million years ago, made it possible for humans to digest ethanol at a rate of 40 times higher than before. This gene, ADH4, created an enzyme that made it possible for our bodies to break down alcohol faster and enjoy more of the overripe bounty on the forest floor, without suffering ill effects. “You could say, we came out of the trees to get a beer.”

Homo Sapien Turns Homo Imbibens

After our discovery of the pleasant side effects to fermenting fruit, it’s highly probable that we then made the transition from nomadic life to a more settled existence. You could say we “settled down to start farming for booze,” and food. Thus, Homo sapien turns Homo imbibens. The discovery that wild grasses could be turned in to ripple pushed humans fast to plant and breed high yielding barley, wheat, and other grains we know today. This places us at about 9,000 years ago when the transition from wondering nomad to agricultural based farming was established. At an ancient site known as Göbekli Tepe located in southeastern Turkey, T-shape pillars dated to around 11,600 years ago were discovered. This site showed evidence of hunter-gatherers congregating to the location for religious ceremonies and were driven to settle down in order to worship more regularly. Large barrels that could hold 40 gallons of liquid were discovered with trace evidence they were used for fermenting wild grasses. Evidence of oxalate residue, a crusty whitish chemical left behind when water and grain mix, was discovered in the tubs. In addition, one vessel contained the shoulder bone of a wild ass, just the right size and shape for stirring a foaming liquid. Some of the oldest firm evidence of alcohol fermentation took place by 7000 B.C. at a site called Jiahu, China. Evidence found at this sight suggest that a cocktail made out of rice, hawthorn berries, honey, and wild grapes was produced for imbibing. It is the earliest evidence for a beer, wine, and mead concoction all in one. But it turns out that even the nomads of Central Asia made up for their lack of fermented fruits and grains by fermenting horse milk. The result is koumiss, a tangy drink with the alcohol content of a weak beer.

The historical roots for imbibing alcohol remained the same for our more modern ancestors as well. People drank alcohol for the same reasons primates ate fermenting fruit. It was good for them. Yeasts produce ethanol, a chemical used in fighting biological warfare. Ethanol is toxic to other substances like microbes that compete with them for sugar inside the fruit. The antimicrobial effects benefits the drinker. This helps explain why people in antiquity drank alcoholic beverages in mass quantity. It was safer and more beneficial than drinking the water. In addition to these medicinal properties the kinds of beer produced in antiquity were not pasteurized, filtered, or hopped out. This resulted in a drink that was fortified with B vitamins, folic acid, niacin, thiamine, and riboflavin and in the Near East beer was a sort of enriched liquid bread.

The ancient Sumerians over 4,000 years ago had a simple recipe for producing a micro batch of brew that incorporated toasted barley cookies, crushed barley malt, milled emmer, an ancient grain, and three quarts of water. Allowed to “rise” for about 24 hours what you end up with is an ancient Sumerian grain alcohol that was safer to drink than water. It’s provocative to ponder the possibility that ancient language may have developed out of a need to transcribe and preserve this recipe for future generations. Eventually ancient Egyptians progressed away from home brewing towards large scale mass production. These denizens of industry and knowledge maintained industrial scale breweries that were used to supply their slave labor force, which built their monuments, temples, and pyramids with this life sustaining form of liquid bread. Even ancient Babylonian sources from 500 B.C. reflected dozens of types of recorded beers; red beer, pale beer, and dark beer.

Adelheid Otto, an archaeologist from Munich thinks the nutrients that fermenting added to early grain made Mesopotamian civilization viable, providing basic vitamins missing from what was otherwise a depressingly bad diet. “They had bread and barley porridge, plus maybe some meat at feasts.” Other than that nutrition was very bad. But as soon as you have beer, you have everything you need to develop really well. “I’m convinced this is why the first high cultures arose in the Near East,” says Otto.

Homo Imbibens Re-tells An All Too Familiar Faustian Theme And Explains The Roots Of Our Drunken History

Human beings never seem to know when to stop. We always go too far, at least that was Johann Wolfgang Goethe’s prime thesis in his stage play “Faust.” The ancient Romans proved this with their mass over-consumption of wine before battle. This suggests that ancient humans felt is necessary that one must get “properly deluded” before picking up a weapon and charging off to war. At a site called Corent, located in central France, archaeologists have uncovered the foundations of a major Celtic ceremonial center and regional capital dated to the first and second century B.C. At around 140 B.C. Corent inhabitants developed a ferocious taste for expensive Roman wine. From the unearthed remains at this site it has been determined the population at this time in history drank 28,000 bottles of expensive Italian red a year. The cites estimated population, 10,000 people. At this period in time, “…wine was primarily drunk by elites,” says Matthieu Poux, a Franco-Swiss archaeologist. “We have to assume lots more beer and mead was drunk by commoners.” That’s a lot of alcohol!

The spiritual and intellectual connections between humans and alcohol can be re-told by the ancient Greeks. In a symposium fueled by wine it was believed, “The first bowl of wine is for health, the second for pleasure, and the third for sleep. When this bowl is drunk up, the wise guests go home.” The comic poet Eubulus warned people during the fourth century B.C. about the down fall of over consumption. “The fourth bowl is ours no longer, but belongs to violence; the fifth to uproar; the sixth to drunken revel; the seventh to black eyes. The eighth is the policeman’s; the ninth belongs to biliousness; and the tenth to madness and the hurling of furniture.”

“Millions of years ago, when food was harder to come by, the attraction to ethanol and the brain chemistry that lit up to reward the discovery of fermented fruit may have been a critical survival advantage for our primate ancestors. Today those genetic and neurochemical traits may be at the root of compulsive drinking,” says Robert Dudley.

So what does this have to do with global climate change, the melting of Antarctica, Trump as president, and the deforestation of the rain forest? “Hmmmmmm.” Maybe we’re all just over performers?

To read more about the our historical roots with ethanol check out the February 2017 edition of National Geographic “Saving Our Oceans,” The Birth of Booze, page 30.